Publications

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  • Civic Society in Transition: The East German Nonprofit Sector Six Years After Unification (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #13 | Helmut K. Anheier, Eckhard Priller, and Annette Zimmer. Two competing views about the East German nonprofit sector have been put forward by policy analysts. One view sees the East German nonprofit sector as an expression of civil society rooted in an emerging democratic culture and based on a broadening base of social participation. According to the other view, the East German nonprofit sector is largely an extension of West German organizations that are not embedded in local society. Subsidiarity has created tendencies toward a bipartite nonprofit sector in Germany, with each part differing in size, scope, and financial structure.

  • Companion Guide to ISIC Rev.4 and CPC Ver. 2; Draft Chapter 6.2: Non-profit Institutions (2011)
    CCSS Working Paper #24 | Lester M. Salamon. Draft of Chapter 6.2: Non-profit Institutions, submitted to the UNSD for inclusion in its forthcoming Companion Guide to ISIC and CPC.

  • Does the Focus on Paid-Staff Nonprofits Skew the True Scope of Voluntary Action? Evidence from a Case Study in Arts and Culture (2002)
    CCSS Working Paper #20 | Stephan Toepler. Much of our current understanding of the nonprofit sector and the degree of voluntary action in the United States is based on statistics drawn from official data sources that do not include information on small-scale grassroots activities. Some observers have argued that a focus on larger, paid-staff nonprofits has led to an inaccurate depiction of U.S. voluntary action. This paper presents data from a community study of cultural organizations, comparing small-scale groups to larger organizations to shed more light on the question of how skewed statistical maps based on official data sources might be.

  • Explaining Nonprofit Advocacy: An Exploratory Analysis (2002)
    CCSS Working Paper #21 | Lester M. Salamon. Discusses the results of a survey of 3,400 nonprofit public-benefit organizations across the United States in the early 1980s that asked questions about the type and extent of advocacy activity in which they engaged; examines a number of possible explanations of the patterns of nonprofit advocacy activity that are apparent; tests these theories against the survey data; and outlines some of the major implications that seem to flow from the results.

  • Exploring the State-Dependency Thesis: Nonprofit Organizations in Germany (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #10 | Helmut K. Anheier, Stefan Toepler, and S. Wojciech Sokolowski. What can be termed the "state-dependency thesis" argues that nonprofit organizations are increasingly becoming bureaucratic and "state-oriented," the more they depend on government funding for their operations. The paper analyzes a sample survey of West German nonprofit organizations to test this thesis. Results suggest that the state-dependency thesis should play less of a role in theoretical understanding of nonprofit organizations.

  • Finding a Sacred Bard: Portraying the Global Nonprofit Sector in Official Statistics (2001)
    CCSS Working Paper #19 | Helen Stone Tice. The UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts outlines a new set of guidelines formulated to help national statistical offices develop a clearer picture of the activities of civil society organizations in their countries. This paper discusses the issues addressed and choices made in the development of the Handbook, which is the result of a collaboration among the United Nations Statistics Division, the Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies, the LSE Centre for Civil Society, national statistical offices, and the nonprofit research community.

  • In Search of the Nonprofit Sector: Improving the state of the art (2001)
    CCSS Working Paper #18 & Nonprofit Economic Data Bulletin #3 | Lester M. Salamon and Sarah Dewees. Identifies a set of criteria for evaluating the data sources currently available on the scale and structure of the U.S. nonprofit sector, applies these criteria to the existing sources of data to identify gaps that still exist, and describes how the work now underway through the Johns Hopkins Nonprofit Employment Project (NED) seeks to address these gaps and what the results have been to date. NED utilizes the ES-202 data source, a source of data on nonprofit employment and wages collected by State Employment Security Agencies as part of the federal government’s joint federal-state unemployment insurance program.

  • Measuring Civil Society and Volunteering: Initial Findings from Implementation of the UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions (2007)
    CCSS Working Paper #23 | Lester M. Salamon, Megan A. Haddock, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Helen S. Tice. Reports on data generated by the first eight countries to implement the UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institution in the System of National Accounts.

  • Myths and Misconceptions? Evaluating the Government/Foundation Relationship in Germany against the American Experience (1997)
    CCSS Working Paper #14 | Stefan Toepler. With the exception of the U.S., much remains unknown about the role and scope of foundation communities in most parts of the world. This lack of knowledge has largely contributed to persisting myths and misconceptions about these institutions. Typically, it is assumed that foundations are more prevalent in the U.S. than in other parts of the world--because of more favorable tax treatment in the U.S. and because dominating welfare states in Europe have gradually crowded out private foundation initiatives in these countries. Using German data, this paper argues that neither of these assumptions appears to be valid.

  • Nonprofit Advocacy: What do we know? (2007)
    CCSS Working Paper #22 | Stephanie L. Geller and Lester M. Salamon. Explores what existing research tells us about the extent and prevailing trends in nonprofit involvement in policy advocacy; examines what is known about the impact on nonprofit advocacy of some of the major factors that various theories have suggested affect the scale and character of nonprofit involvement in policy advocacy; and summarizes the gaps in our knowledge on this important topic and the implications these hold for further research on nonprofit advocacy.

  • Nonprofit Management Education: A Field Whose Time Has Passed? (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #7 | Lester M. Salamon. Salamon argues that the training of nonprofit managers best occurs within the context of educational programs that train future public servants—both in the public and nonprofit sectors. Such educational programs should incorporate the moral and philosophical underpinnings of public service in addition to more traditional areas of study, including policy analysis, the tools of government action, and management coursework.

  • SDGs and NPIs: Private Nonprofit Institutions - The foot soldiers for the UN Sustainable Development Goals (2015)
    CCSS Working Paper #25 | Lester M. Salamon and Megan A. Haddock. This paper highlights the fundamental relevance of the global civil society sector and volunteers to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and begins the process of articulating a framework of actions that will be needed to allow NPIs to play their part in making it possible to make real progress toward achieving the 2015 SDGs.

  • Service Professionals and the Formation of Nonprofit Organizations: The case of Poland in the early 1990s (1999)
    CCSS Working Paper #16 | S. Wojciech Sokolowski. This paper proposes a new theoretical model to help explain the emergence of nonprofit organizations. It claims that nonprofits offer certain types of advantages for legitimizing professional innovation and furthering occupational interests of service professionals; therefore, professionals might use that form as a preferred service delivery venue. Empirical evidence is drawn from Polish data for the 1989 to 1993 period.

  • The Civil Society Sector: A New Global Force (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #11 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. The civil society sector, which encompasses private, nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations, is one of the most significant social innovations in the twentieth century. Research findings from a major undertaking to chart the international nonprofit sector are used to sketch a picture of the civil society sector. Observations include a discussion of the sector’s expenditures, contribution to employment growth, and scope of activities.

  • The Crises of the Nonprofit Sector (1995)
    CCSS Working Paper #6 | Lester M. Salamon. The challenge facing the American nonprofit sector is that private charity is not compensating for reductions in federal government support of the sector. This is compounded by the sector’s new credibility problem--nonprofits are increasingly viewed by the American public as part of the problem, and not solution, to social welfare problems. Thus time is ripe for the self-renewal of the nonprofit sector.

  • The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 1992 (1991)
    CCSS Working Paper #1 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson. This is one in a series of Occasional Papers produced by the Johns Hopkins Institute for policy Studies. This paper, published in December 1991, examines the implications for the nonprofit sector in the FY 1992 U.S. Federal budget.

  • The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 1995 (1994)
    CCSS Working Paper #5 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson. In FY 1995 the Clinton administration proposed, and Congress passed, additional small federal budget increases supporting nonprofits, including social service agencies, hospitals, and universities. Continuing the work reported in Working Paper 3, this paper analyzes the effects of these changes

  • The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 93 (1992)
    CCSS Working Paper #2 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson. This is one in a series of Occasional Papers produced by the Johns Hopkins Institute for policy Studies. This paper, published in 1992, examines the implications for the nonprofit sector in the FY 1993 U.S. Federal budget.

  • The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 94 (1993)
    CCSS Working Paper #3 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson. In FY 1993 and FY 1994 the Clinton administration proposed, and Congress passed, significant federal budget increases supporting certain types of nonprofit activities. Because government heavily relies on nonprofits to deliver services, changes in federal spending not only increase the scope of government action in these fields but also increase nonprofit revenues. This increase in funds reversed a ten-year trend in decreased federal support for the nonprofit sector, yet did not bring government funding back up to FY 1980 levels.

  • The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: Implications of the Contract with America (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #8 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson. The paper explores the potential impacts of budget and program changes first introduced in the 1994 Republican “Contract With America” on America’s private nonprofit organizations. These proposed changes threaten to plunge the nonprofit sector into a serious fiscal crisis. Proposed cuts reflect the public’s misunderstanding and devaluation of the character and scale of the nonprofit sector.

  • The Global Associational Revolution: The Rise of the Third Sector on the World Scene (2001)
    CCSS Working Paper #4 | Lester M. Salamon. This article examines the striking growth of a global nonprofit sector in the past two decades. It details the pressures stimulating the growth of the nonprofit sector in disparate settings worldwide, tracing these developments to four “crises” and two revolutions. These have combined to weaken the role of the state and increase both the need and opportunity for organized private charity.

  • The Influence of the Legal Environment on the Development of the Nonprofit Sector (2000)
    CCSS Working Paper #17 | Lester M. Salamon and Stefan Toepler. This paper discusses a transaction cost-based theoretical framework for understanding possible impacts of law on nonprofit development; develops a nonprofit law index on the basis of this framework; and tests empirically whether there is a relationship between the size of the nonprofit sector and the degree of legal enablement in a cross-section of countries.

  • The Nonprofit Sector and the Arts in the United States - Bridging the gap (1999)
    CCSS Working Paper #15 | Stephan Toepler. While most high cultural institutions as well as community arts groups in the U.S. are nonprofit in form, traditionally, there has been very little interaction between nonprofit research and research on arts policy and cultural economics. Based on a presentation given at the National Endowment for the Arts, this paper reviews the applicability and relevance of trends and policy issues in the nonprofit sector for the field of arts and culture.

  • The State of Global Civil Society and Volunteering: Latest findings from the implementation of the UN Nonprofit Handbook (2013)
    Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #49 | Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, Megan Haddock, and Helen S. Tice. The latest findings resulting from the implementation of the UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts. This report includes data on nonprofit employment, volunteering, fields of activity, contribution to GDP, expenditures, and revenues in 16 countries around the world.

  • The Third Route: Government-Nonprofit Collaboration in Germany and the United States (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #9 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. The third route, a partnership between the state and private sector for providing human services in a market system, offers certain advantages over the other two major routes: reliance on the state and reliance on the private sector. Both Germany and the United States have essentially collaborative social welfare systems; this paper describes both systems, and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each.


 

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