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  • Civic Society in Transition: The East German Nonprofit Sector Six Years After Unification (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #13 | Helmut K. Anheier, Eckhard Priller, and Annette Zimmer. Two competing views about the East German nonprofit sector have been put forward by policy analysts. One view sees the East German nonprofit sector as an expression of civil society rooted in an emerging democratic culture and based on a broadening base of social participation. According to the other view, the East German nonprofit sector is largely an extension of West German organizations that are not embedded in local society. Subsidiarity has created tendencies toward a bipartite nonprofit sector in Germany, with each part differing in size, scope, and financial structure.

  • Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project Methodology
    The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project sought to develop a common base of data about a similar set of “nonprofit” or “voluntary” institutions in a disparate set of countries. This required that we resolve five critical methodological and conceptual challenges including selection of a set of differing countries for testing theories; clearly defining what was meant by “nonprofit” or “voluntary” organizations; development of a classification scheme; identification the most meaningful aspects of these organizations to focus on for data-gathering purposes; and devising a way to collect reliable data on these aspects in a cost-efficient fashion. This document describes how the Center went about these tasks and provides more detail on the actual sources of data used in various countries.

  • Exploring the State-Dependency Thesis: Nonprofit Organizations in Germany (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #10 | Helmut K. Anheier, Stefan Toepler, and S. Wojciech Sokolowski. What can be termed the "state-dependency thesis" argues that nonprofit organizations are increasingly becoming bureaucratic and "state-oriented," the more they depend on government funding for their operations. The paper analyzes a sample survey of West German nonprofit organizations to test this thesis. Results suggest that the state-dependency thesis should play less of a role in theoretical understanding of nonprofit organizations.

  • Germany: Chapter 5 in Global Civil Society, Volume 1 (English, 1999)
    Chapter 5 of Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, Volume 1. Resulting from the second stage of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this chapter analyses the scope, size, composition, and financing of the civil society sector in Germany. Data is circa 1995.

  • Germany: Chapter 5 in Global Civil Society, Volume 1 (Español, 1999)
    Capítulo 5 de la La Sociedad Civil Global: Las dimensiones del sector no lucrativo, Volumen 1. Como resultado de la segunda etapa de la Johns Hopkins Proyecto Comparativo del Sector sin Fines de Lucro, en este capítulo se analiza el alcance, tamaño, composición, y la financiación del sector de la sociedad civil en Alemania. Los datos son alrededor de 1995.

  • Germany: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
    Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #6 | Helmut K. Anheier and Wolfgang Seibel. Defines the concepts that make up the German nonprofit sector and tie the development of the sector to development of social goods and services in Germany. Explains that the nonprofit sector in Germany is not just one entity, but rather, it is composed of various terms that put these organizations somewhere between state agencies and market firms. Describes the different legal, fiscal and social implications of the term, nonprofit sector, and trace the historical developments of the sector in Germany to better explain the definition and conceptualization of the nonprofit sector today.

  • Germany: Workforce, expenditures, and revenue data (1995)
    Adapted from Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Associates, Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, Volume Two (Bloomfied, CT: Kumarian Press, 2004). Data circa 1995.

  • Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, Volume 1 (1999)
    ISBN 1-886333-42-4 | Lester M. Salamon, Helmut K. Anheier, Regina List, Stefan Toepler, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Associates. Resulting from the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this volume presents a comprehensive country-by-country analysis of the scope, size, composition, and financing of the civil society sector in 22 countries around the world. The full text is available for download here; also available for purchase at Amazon.

  • Myths and Misconceptions? Evaluating the Government/Foundation Relationship in Germany against the American Experience (1997)
    CCSS Working Paper #14 | Stefan Toepler. With the exception of the U.S., much remains unknown about the role and scope of foundation communities in most parts of the world. This lack of knowledge has largely contributed to persisting myths and misconceptions about these institutions. Typically, it is assumed that foundations are more prevalent in the U.S. than in other parts of the world--because of more favorable tax treatment in the U.S. and because dominating welfare states in Europe have gradually crowded out private foundation initiatives in these countries. Using German data, this paper argues that neither of these assumptions appears to be valid.

  • The Third Route: Government-Nonprofit Collaboration in Germany and the United States (1996)
    CCSS Working Paper #9 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. The third route, a partnership between the state and private sector for providing human services in a market system, offers certain advantages over the other two major routes: reliance on the state and reliance on the private sector. Both Germany and the United States have essentially collaborative social welfare systems; this paper describes both systems, and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each.


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