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CNP Working Papers (67) « Comparative Nonprofit Sector Publications « International Publications « Downloads
- The State of Global Civil Society and Volunteering: Latest findings from the implementation of the UN Nonprofit Handbook (2013)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #49 | Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, Megan Haddock, and Helen S. Tice. The latest findings resulting from the implementation of the UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts. This report includes data on nonprofit employment, volunteering, fields of activity, contribution to GDP, expenditures, and revenues in 16 countries around the world.
- Philippines: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2001)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #39 | Ledivina V. Cariño and PNSP Project Staff. Provides an overview of the types of organizations included in the Philippine nonprofit sector, the terms used to depict these organizations, and special features of the country’s history that have shaped the sector’s development.
- Denmark: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2005)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #44 | Bjarne Ibsen and Ulla Habermann Defines the voluntary sector in Denmark and delimits the different types of organizations included in the sector. Reviews the history and social context within which these organizations have developed. Addresses the “grey zone” of organizations that do not clearly fit under the definition of the nonprofit sector.
- Social Origins of Civil Society: An Overview (2000)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #38 | Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Helmut K. Anheier. The availability of comparative cross-national data has made it possible to test the existing theories of the origins of the nonprofit sector. These theories assume a competitive relationship between the nonprofit sector and the state in the production of public goods; however, the cross-national data show no straightforward relationship between the size of the nonprofit and the government social welfare sectors. This paper provides an alternative theory that conceptualizes the nonprofit sector in the broader context of the development of social, political, and economic institutions during the period of modernization. This theory explains cross-national variations in the size of the nonprofit sector and accounts for its different roles and relationships to other social institutions such as state, class structure, and organized religion in different countries.
- India: Legal Framework for Nonprofit Institutions in India (PRIA, 2001)
PRIA Working Paper #2. One of a series of working papers produced by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia, as part of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this paper examines the contemporary legal framework in which the nonprofit sector is active in India.
- The International Classification of Nonprofit Organizations - ICNPO. Revision 1.0 (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #19 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. Presents an updated version (resulting from the Dublin Project Team Meeting in December 1995) of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project’s classification system (first created in 1992 through collaboration of the team of international scholars working on the Project). The classification system is increasingly used for statistical purposes in a broad cross- section of countries.
- Pakistan: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2003)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #42 | Aisha Ghaus-Pasha and Muhammad Asif Iqbal. Explains how historical and religious influences have contributed to the growth and development of civil society in Pakistan and discusses the challenges faced by the Pakistani nonprofit sector. Describes the types of nonprofit organizations in Pakistan and gives an overview of the sector’s legal framework.
- In Search of the Nonprofit Sector II: The Problem of Classification (1992)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #3 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. Redefines the nonprofit sector by giving it a structural/operational definition that breaks up organizations in the nonprofit sector into five structural/operational features. Explains the need for such a classification system and explains why existing systems are lacking in their definition of the sector. Also provides an alternative to the Proposed International Classification of Nonprofit Organizations and tests a cross-national application of the alternative.
- New Zealand: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2006)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #45 | Margaret Tennant, Jackie Sanders, Michael O’Brien, and Charlotte Castle Identifies difficulties in defining the nonprofit sector as a single institution in New Zealand because of a number of complicating perspectives. Points to self-definitions of nonprofit groups, which are often based on the sector they serve, rather than on membership in the Third Sector. Discusses important milestones in the development of New Zealand nonprofit organizations, the legal structures that govern them, and the major types of nonprofit organizations using the United Nations International Classification of Nonprofit Organizations (ICNPO) as a framework.
- Sweden: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1995)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #16 | Tommy Lundström and Filip Wijkström. Identifies lack of knowledge about the Swedish nonprofit sector as the cause for insufficient debate about the nature and future of the sector. Existing discussions offer contradictory or overlapping terms and concepts, and some researchers question the existence of a nonprofit sector in Sweden. Although the nonprofit sector is relatively small, upon the incorporation of a broader set of organizations, primarily church and state institutions, the nonprofit sector has a more significant presence. Discusses historical, social and legal developments that lead to the creation of the Swedish nonprofit sector.
- The Nonprofit Sector: A New Global Force (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #21 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. Labels the nonprofit sector as the great innovation of the latter twentieth century and identifies the domination of the two sector model of market and state as the reason for which the nonprofit sector has remained hidden from view. Introduces the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, highlights its methods, areas of focus, and findings.
- Germany: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #6 | Helmut K. Anheier and Wolfgang Seibel. Defines the concepts that make up the German nonprofit sector and tie the development of the sector to development of social goods and services in Germany. Explains that the nonprofit sector in Germany is not just one entity, but rather, it is composed of various terms that put these organizations somewhere between state agencies and market firms. Describes the different legal, fiscal and social implications of the term, nonprofit sector, and trace the historical developments of the sector in Germany to better explain the definition and conceptualization of the nonprofit sector today.
- Japan: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #15 | Takayoshi Amenomori. Explains that the nonprofit sector in Japan is greatly influenced by the public and private sectors and that is difficult to measure because many of the organizations are not registered or incorporated, and are often treated as a part of the government. Delves into the historical background of the Japan, emphasizing its tradition of philanthropy and highlighting the changes over various periods including the monarchy, through World War II, and in the post-war period. Also shows the role of Buddhism in the creation of philanthropic activities and the presence of the nonprofit sector in Japanese law.
- Korea, Republic of: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2002)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #41 | Inchoon Kim and Changsoon Hwang. Describes how South Korea’s political history and societal characteristics have influenced the evolution of the country’s nonprofit sector and the ways in which the sector is conceptualized and defined.
- Brazil: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #9 | Leilah Landim. The notion of nonprofit organizations is unfamiliar to Brazilian social and economic thought, but it is gradually gaining prominence. Ties the emergence of the nonprofit sector to the close links between the Church and the population. Indicates a shift in the last decade of the nineteenth century where voluntary organizations came up on their own and covered more diverse areas of political and professional interests. Studies the relationship between the fiscal sector and the nonprofit sector, as well as the legal status of these organizations. Discusses the reemergence of the relationship between the Catholic church and the State as a mechanism to maintain social order.
- United States: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #18 | Lester M. Salamon. Describes the historical and social context in which nonprofit organizations have developed in the U.S., the legal framework that defines their basic structure, and the recent trends influencing their evolution. Discusses the American ideology of volunteerism, particularly as it relates to tension between an individualist ethos and the need for collective action. Ultimately, recommends a comparative analysis of the American nonprofit sector to assess the applicability of theoretical definitions and to move beyond a purely ideological perspective.
- Switzerland: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2009)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #46 | Bernd Helmig, Christoph Bärlocher and Georg von Schnurbein Justifies defining Switzerland’s Third Sector as an institution, despite its heterogeneous nature. Uses a conceptual and historical analysis to define the sector and place it in the context of its relationship with Swiss society and politics and their respective influences. Once defined in the Swiss context, compares and assesses the extent to which the Swiss Third Sector conforms to the internationally accepted structural-operational definition.
- Egypt: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #10 | Amani Kandil. Discusses the way the nonprofit sector is defined and conceptualized in Egypt in light of three factors: state distrust of civil society, a rapidly changing political economy, and the rise of Islamic organizations, particularly in the nonprofit sector. Describes the major types of nonprofit organizations in Egypt and relates their challenges to tension between the State and religious groups and organizations.
- The Nonprofit Sector: For What and For Whom? (2000)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #37 | Lester M. Salamon, Leslie Hems, and Kathryn Chinnock. Reveals some initial results from the Impact Analysis portion of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project. Nonprofit organizations are performing a wide variety of service, innovation, advocacy, expressive and community-building roles in diverse fields throughout the world. They are doing so, moreover, with far fewer vulnerabilities than often assumed. Because it is difficult to answer empirically the fundamental question of the impact of this set of organizations, this study utilizes a systematic methodological approach that looks at both potential positive and negative consequences. The paper concludes that the nonprofit sector does indeed seem to perform a distinctive set of roles, while at the same time, it still suffers from some vulnerabilities. This initial discussion covers 17 countries to date out of about 40 countries in the study.
- India: Defining the Sector in India - Voluntary, Civil or Nonprofit (PRIA, 2000)
PRIA Working Paper #1. The first of a series of working papers produced by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia, this paper focuses on the definition and classification of nonprofit organizations as part of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project work in India.
- Toward an Understanding of the International Nonprofit Sector: The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (1992)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #1 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. Identifies the key role of the capacities of the nonprofit/voluntary sector and introduces and describes the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project in hopes of filling information gaps about the sector. Focuses on definitional, measurement, and theoretical concerns.
- Switzerland: Government Policy and the Nonprofit Sector (2009)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #48 | Michael Nollert and Monica Budowski. Addresses the political context for nonprofit organizations in Switzerland, the Swiss political context with its particularities of a confederation and of direct democratic instruments that effect the socio-political environment, the characteristics of nonprofit organizations and their influence on politics and policies, and current issues relevant to NPOs.
- Portugal: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2005)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #43 | Raquel Campos Franco Describes the impact of Portugal’s political and cultural history on the scope and role of the nonprofit sector and its continued evolution in the contemporary Portuguese political environment. Evaluates the legal framework surrounding the nonprofit sector in Portugal and its impact on the development of these organizations.
- Chile: Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project National Report (Español, 2006)
Producido por FOCUS, este informe resume los resultados de la Proyecto comparativo Johns Hopkins sector sin Fines de Lucro de trabajo en Chile. Los resultados muestran que el sector sin fines de lucro de Chile es el más grande en América Latina, representando más del 303 000 equivalentes a tiempo completo (ETC) y trabajos pagados voluntarios, el empleo remunerado representa por sí solo el 2,6% de la población económicamente activa. Los datos son alrededor de 2004.
- Italy: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #8 | Gian Paolo Barbetto. Describes the nonprofit sector in Italy has vague and blurred by the overlapping of the separate realms of the public and private sector. Describes the government’s efforts to limit the power and influence of the Catholic church and integrate social movements into the political structure of the capitalist economy. Describes the status of nonprofit organizations under civil law in Italy and their legal status. Also details the historical evolution of the Italian nonprofit sector and highlights crucial developments in its evolution.
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