The Center’s comprehensive database contains over 400 research products generated by our projects and staff. In order to make it easy to find what you are looking for, we have divided our publications into 4 broad categories (International, U.S.-focused, Books, and News), with increasingly specific categories (e.g. by project) as you drill down.
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- India: Exploring the Nonprofit Sector in India - Some Glimpses from Tamil Nadu (PRIA, 2002)
PRIA Working Paper #4.
One of a series of working papers produced by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia, this paper presents the findings of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
- India: Exploring the Nonprofit Sector in India - Some Glimpses from West Bengal (PRIA, 2002)
PRIA Working Paper #6.
One of a series of working papers produced by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia, this paper presents the findings of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project in the state of West Bengal, India.
- India: Invisible Yet Widespread - The Nonprofit Sector in India (PRIA, 2002)
One of a series of working papers produced by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia, this paper presents the preliminary findings of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project in India.
- India: Legal Framework for Nonprofit Institutions in India (PRIA, 2001)
PRIA Working Paper #2.
One of a series of working papers produced by the Society for Participatory Research in Asia, as part of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this paper examines the contemporary legal framework in which the nonprofit sector is active in India.
- Ireland: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1998)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #28 | Freda Donoghue.
Provides an overview of the Irish nonprofit sector, better known domestically as the voluntary sector. The author suggests that, although government support for voluntary activity in the education and health fields has been strong, a coherent policy toward growing self-help and community efforts is needed.
- Israel: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1998)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #26 | Benjamin Gidron and Hagai Katz.
Describes the meaning of the nonprofit sector in Israeli society and the ambiguity of this definition in the Israeli context due to the lack of clear delineation as to the composition of the sector. Analyzes impact of the dominating political ideology on the definition of the nonprofit sector and the impact of the legal framework surrounding nonprofit organizations.
- Italy: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #8 | Gian Paolo Barbetto.
Describes the nonprofit sector in Italy has vague and blurred by the overlapping of the separate realms of the public and private sector. Describes the government’s efforts to limit the power and influence of the Catholic church and integrate social movements into the political structure of the capitalist economy. Describes the status of nonprofit organizations under civil law in Italy and their legal status. Also details the historical evolution of the Italian nonprofit sector and highlights crucial developments in its evolution.
- Japan: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #15 | Takayoshi Amenomori.
Explains that the nonprofit sector in Japan is greatly influenced by the public and private sectors and that is difficult to measure because many of the organizations are not registered or incorporated, and are often treated as a part of the government. Delves into the historical background of the Japan, emphasizing its tradition of philanthropy and highlighting the changes over various periods including the monarchy, through World War II, and in the post-war period. Also shows the role of Buddhism in the creation of philanthropic activities and the presence of the nonprofit sector in Japanese law.
- Korea, Republic of: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2002)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #41 | Inchoon Kim and Changsoon Hwang.
Describes how South Korea’s political history and societal characteristics have influenced the evolution of the country’s nonprofit sector and the ways in which the sector is conceptualized and defined.
- Measuring Social Consequences of Non-Profit Institution Activities: A Research Note (2014)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #50 | S. Wojciech Sokolowski.
This paper proposes a model of a standardized measurement of social benefits created by NPI activities for the purpose of macro-economic analysis. The proposed model draws from the well-established in measurement methodology concepts: the program logic model and the supply and use and input/output tables used in the System of National Accounts. The model is based on standard definitions of NPI central products (material output) and social beneficiaries of those products (outcomes), and allocates quantitative shares of those products to different types of beneficiaries. Seven material output/outcome matrices for the industries in which NPIs tend to concentrate are proposed: education, health care, social assistance, housing construction and services, community development, culture, arts and recreation and membership organizations. Each matrix allocates material output to different outcomes for the entire industry, and separately for NPIs in that industry, which allows comparing NPIs against industry wide benchmarks. The paper also proposes a model for measuring broader social impacts that includes direct and consequential benefits as well as savings in social spending.
- Netherlands: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1997)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #23 | Ary Burger, Paul Dekker, Tymen van der Ploeg, and Wino van Veen.
Reviews the historical and legal background as well as the treatment and definition of the nonprofit sector in the Netherlands. Explains that the nonprofit sector is not a defined term in Dutch and that it is viewed with more of a legal emphasis in organizations that focus on health, culture, arts and social services. Emphasizes the historical background of the development of the nonprofit sector in the Netherlands by explaining the pillarization process and the subsequent closeness of ties between the government and nonprofit sector.
- Netherlands: History of the Nonprofit Sector (1999)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #35 | Vic Veldheer and Ary Burger.
Traces the roots of the Dutch nonprofit sector and its development, as well as the social and legal origins that help to classify the nonprofit sector in the Netherlands. Describes the impact of government behavior on the development of the sector and isolates particular areas of the nonprofit sector for impact analysis.
- New Zealand: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2006)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #45 | Margaret Tennant, Jackie Sanders, Michael O’Brien, and Charlotte Castle
Identifies difficulties in defining the nonprofit sector as a single institution in New Zealand because of a number of complicating perspectives. Points to self-definitions of nonprofit groups, which are often based on the sector they serve, rather than on membership in the Third Sector. Discusses important milestones in the development of New Zealand nonprofit organizations, the legal structures that govern them, and the major types of nonprofit organizations using the United Nations International Classification of Nonprofit Organizations (ICNPO) as a framework.
- Nonprofit Institutions and the 1993 System of National Accounts (1998)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #25 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier.
Describes the framework of the United Nations System of National Accounts and its relationship with nonprofit institutions. Furthermore, it delineates the domain and scope of nonprofit institutions and their function within the context of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector project. It also assesses the impact of the allocation of rules on nonprofit institutions.
- Nonprofit Law: Ten Issues in Search of Resolution (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #20 | Lester M. Salamon and Susan L. Q. Flaherty.
Introduces ten fundamental issues providing a useful framework for assessing the laws and regulations governing the nonprofit sector internationally.
- Pakistan: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2003)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #42 | Aisha Ghaus-Pasha and Muhammad Asif Iqbal.
Explains how historical and religious influences have contributed to the growth and development of civil society in Pakistan and discusses the challenges faced by the Pakistani nonprofit sector. Describes the types of nonprofit organizations in Pakistan and gives an overview of the sector’s legal framework.
- Philippines: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2001)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #39 | Ledivina V. Cariño and PNSP Project Staff.
Provides an overview of the types of organizations included in the Philippine nonprofit sector, the terms used to depict these organizations, and special features of the country’s history that have shaped the sector’s development.
- Poland: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2000)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #36 | Ewa Les, Slawomir Nalecz, and Jakub Wygnanski.
Examines the historical background of the nonprofit sector in Poland and its evolution over a series of political changes and illustrates the impact of the fall of Communism on Polish civil society. Highlights the impact of the legal status of nonprofit organizations on their development in Poland.
- Portugal: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2005)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #43 | Raquel Campos Franco
Describes the impact of Portugal’s political and cultural history on the scope and role of the nonprofit sector and its continued evolution in the contemporary Portuguese political environment. Evaluates the legal framework surrounding the nonprofit sector in Portugal and its impact on the development of these organizations.
- Romania: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1998)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #32 | Daniel Saulean and Carmen Epure.
Identifies the late emergence of the nonprofit sector in Romania as a result of the institutions imposed by the Socialist regime, and illustrates the changes in the nonprofit sector in post-Socialist Romania. This paper also identifies obstacles faced by the non-governmental sector, such as geopolitical instability and civil law, as causes that contributed to the limited growth of this sector.
- Romania: Philanthropy, Nationalism, and the Growth of Civil Society (1998)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #31 | Maria Bucur.
Traces the historical origins of discourse on social welfare and philanthropy being employed today to institutionalize a newly burgeoning nonprofit sector. Looks at the role of the State, religion, and cultural homogeneity as factors affecting the growth of the Romanian Third Sector. Concludes that the sector’s difficulties in defining itself are based on the gap between the novelty of the sector and the traditional nature of its conceptual origins.
- Social Origins of Civil Society: An Overview (2000)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #38 | Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Helmut K. Anheier.
The availability of comparative cross-national data has made it possible to test the existing theories of the origins of the nonprofit sector. These theories assume a competitive relationship between the nonprofit sector and the state in the production of public goods; however, the cross-national data show no straightforward relationship between the size of the nonprofit and the government social welfare sectors. This paper provides an alternative theory that conceptualizes the nonprofit sector in the broader context of the development of social, political, and economic institutions during the period of modernization. This theory explains cross-national variations in the size of the nonprofit sector and accounts for its different roles and relationships to other social institutions such as state, class structure, and organized religion in different countries.
- Social Origins of Civil Society: Explaining the Nonprofit Sector Cross-Nationally (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #22 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier.
Applies results from the Comparative Nonprofit Sector project to test some leading nonprofit sector theories. The resulting analysis discusses how these theories often fail to account for the complexity of the cross-national experience. The authors propose a new social origins" approach to describe the international nonprofit sector.
- Sweden: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1995)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #16 | Tommy Lundström and Filip Wijkström.
Identifies lack of knowledge about the Swedish nonprofit sector as the cause for insufficient debate about the nature and future of the sector. Existing discussions offer contradictory or overlapping terms and concepts, and some researchers question the existence of a nonprofit sector in Sweden. Although the nonprofit sector is relatively small, upon the incorporation of a broader set of organizations, primarily church and state institutions, the nonprofit sector has a more significant presence. Discusses historical, social and legal developments that lead to the creation of the Swedish nonprofit sector.
- Switzerland: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (2009)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #46 | Bernd Helmig, Christoph Bärlocher and Georg von Schnurbein
Justifies defining Switzerland’s Third Sector as an institution, despite its heterogeneous nature. Uses a conceptual and historical analysis to define the sector and place it in the context of its relationship with Swiss society and politics and their respective influences. Once defined in the Swiss context, compares and assesses the extent to which the Swiss Third Sector conforms to the internationally accepted structural-operational definition.