The Center’s comprehensive database contains over 400 research products generated by our projects and staff. In order to make it easy to find what you are looking for, we have divided our publications into 4 broad categories (International, U.S.-focused, Books, and News), with increasingly specific categories (e.g. by project) as you drill down.
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- Switzerland: Government Policy and the Nonprofit Sector (2009)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #48 | Michael Nollert and Monica Budowski.
Addresses the political context for nonprofit organizations in Switzerland, the Swiss political context with its particularities of a confederation and of direct democratic instruments that effect the socio-political environment, the characteristics of nonprofit organizations and their influence on politics and policies, and current issues relevant to NPOs.
- Switzerland: Nonprofit Law (2009)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #47 | Dominique Jakob, Roman Huber and Katharina Rauber
Looks into the legal requirements and forms that shape the Swiss nonprofit sector. Emphasizes specifically the legal issues surrounding foundations, religious organizations, and donations. Further addresses taxation and liability concerns, as well as accounting, auditing, and reporting requirements.
- Thailand: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #11 | Amara Pongsapich.
Explains that the nonprofit sector in Thailand is viewed as a competitor to the country’s military governments, but is being recognized as essential to the economic and social development of the country. Traces the origins of the Thai nonprofit sector to religion and describes the emergence of non-religious organizations following World War II. Explains that the sector has grown despite periods of suppression and has also been influenced by the presence of Catholic missionaries in Thailand. Describes the major types of nonprofit organizations in contemporary Thailand and their legal statuses in the eyes of the government.
- The International Classification of Nonprofit Organizations - ICNPO. Revision 1.0 (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #19 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier.
Presents an updated version (resulting from the Dublin Project Team Meeting in December 1995) of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project’s classification system (first created in 1992 through collaboration of the team of international scholars working on the Project). The classification system is increasingly used for statistical purposes in a broad cross- section of countries.
- The Nonprofit Sector in the United Nations System of National Accounts: Definition, Treatment, and Practice (1992)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #4 | Helmut K. Anheier, Gabriel Rudney, and Lester M. Salamon.
Describes the conceptualization of the nonprofit sector in the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA) and the development of its sector-based typology. Compares the real-world application of SNA guidelines in various countries and produces an overall assessment in terms of scope of coverage and data quality. Finally, in light of this assessment and of revisions made in the guidelines, recommends a reconceptualization of the nonprofit sector, using a structural/operational definition, rather than a client/revenue criterion.
- The Nonprofit Sector: A New Global Force (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #21 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier.
Labels the nonprofit sector as the great innovation of the latter twentieth century and identifies the domination of the two sector model of market and state as the reason for which the nonprofit sector has remained hidden from view. Introduces the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, highlights its methods, areas of focus, and findings.
- The Nonprofit Sector: For What and For Whom? (2000)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #37 | Lester M. Salamon, Leslie Hems, and Kathryn Chinnock.
Reveals some initial results from the Impact Analysis portion of the Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project. Nonprofit organizations are performing a wide variety of service, innovation, advocacy, expressive and community-building roles in diverse fields throughout the world. They are doing so, moreover, with far fewer vulnerabilities than often assumed. Because it is difficult to answer empirically the fundamental question of the impact of this set of organizations, this study utilizes a systematic methodological approach that looks at both potential positive and negative consequences. The paper concludes that the nonprofit sector does indeed seem to perform a distinctive set of roles, while at the same time, it still suffers from some vulnerabilities. This initial discussion covers 17 countries to date out of about 40 countries in the study.
- The State of Global Civil Society and Volunteering: Latest findings from the implementation of the UN Nonprofit Handbook (2013)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #49 | Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, Megan Haddock, and Helen S. Tice.
The latest findings resulting from the implementation of the UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts. This report includes data on nonprofit employment, volunteering, fields of activity, contribution to GDP, expenditures, and revenues in 16 countries around the world.
- The Third World’s Third Sector in Comparative Perspective (1997)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #24 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier.
Assesses the increasing impact of nonprofit activity in Africa, Asia and Latin America and the concurrent lack of information surrounding them in the Third World sector by studying five different countries to gain a broader understanding of the causes for this knowledge gap. It explains the knowledge gap on three levels; descriptive, conceptual, and theoretical. The paper also highlights the gradual shift from the humanitarian role of the nonprofit sector to contributors to economic growth in the Third World.
- Toward an Understanding of the International Nonprofit Sector: The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (1992)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #1 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier.
Identifies the key role of the capacities of the nonprofit/voluntary sector and introduces and describes the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project in hopes of filling information gaps about the sector. Focuses on definitional, measurement, and theoretical concerns.
- Turkey: Major Periods of Civil Society Sector Development (2014)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #52 | Burak Özçetin, Ulaş Tol, M.Ali Çalışkan, and Mustafa Özer.
This paper traces the origins and development of civil society organizations and links it to the evolution of state power in Turkey.
- Turkey: Nonprofit Law (2014)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #51 | Kasım Akbaş.
Looks into the legal requirements and forms that shape the Turkish nonprofit sector, examining the many laws, regulations, and norms regulating
each major type of NPO in Turkey, as well as the specific regulations within these major types.
- Turkey: The Current Environment for Civil Society in Turkey (2015)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #53 | Burak Özçetin and Mustafa Özer.
This paper outlines the policy environment in which civil society organizations in Turkey operate as of 2014.
- Turkey: Turkey's Nonprofit Sector in Comparative Perspective (2016)
Mustafa Özer, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, Megan A. Haddock, and Lester M. Salamon.
This is a report comparing the scope, composition, expenditures, history, and legal environment of the nonprofit sector in Turkey to its counterparts in other countries. The report draws on the data generated from the implementation of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project in Turkey, conducted in partnership with Andalou University and includes the application of the social origins theory of civil society development to the sector in Turkey.
- United Kingdom: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1993)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #5 | Jeremy Kendall and Martin Knapp.
States that the nonprofit sector in the United Kingdom is important but that its boundaries are poorly defined, thereby making the activities conducted in this sector difficult to compile and study. The article makes note of the historical development of this sector and then highlights the major types of organization in the British nonprofit sector and their function as members of this sector. Also explains the legal framework and the tax treatment of these organizations by the government of the United Kingdom.
- United States: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #18 | Lester M. Salamon.
Describes the historical and social context in which nonprofit organizations have developed in the U.S., the legal framework that defines their basic structure, and the recent trends influencing their evolution. Discusses the American ideology of volunteerism, particularly as it relates to tension between an individualist ethos and the need for collective action. Ultimately, recommends a comparative analysis of the American nonprofit sector to assess the applicability of theoretical definitions and to move beyond a purely ideological perspective.
- Volunteering in Cross-National Perspective: Evidence From Twenty-Four Countries (2001)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #40 | Lester M. Salamon and S. Wojciech Sokolowski.
Examines data on volunteering in 24 countries. These data show considerable cross-national variation in the total amount of volunteering and in the distribution of that volunteering across service fields. The findings suggest that volunteering is not just an individual choice or spontaneous outburst of altruism, but is affected by larger social and institutional forces such as class structure, government policies, and organized religion.