The Center’s comprehensive database contains over 400 research products generated by our projects and staff. In order to make it easy to find what you are looking for, we have divided our publications into 4 broad categories (International, U.S.-focused, Books, and News), with increasingly specific categories (e.g. by project) as you drill down.
You can also search this database by country, global region, U.S. state, or keyword.
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- Caring Sector or Caring Society? Discovering the Nonprofit Sector Cross-Nationally (1994)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #17 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier.
Challenges conventional U.S. rhetoric of voluntarism, which equates the size and visibility of the nonprofit sector with the presence of a “caring tradition” in a society.
- Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project Methodology
The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project sought to develop a common base of data about a similar set of “nonprofit” or “voluntary” institutions in a disparate set of countries. This required that we resolve five critical methodological and conceptual challenges including selection of a set of differing countries for testing theories; clearly defining what was meant by “nonprofit” or “voluntary” organizations; development of a classification scheme; identification the most meaningful aspects of these organizations to focus on for data-gathering purposes; and devising a way to collect reliable data on these aspects in a cost-efficient fashion. This document describes how the Center went about these tasks and provides more detail on the actual sources of data used in various countries.
- Does the Focus on Paid-Staff Nonprofits Skew the True Scope of Voluntary Action? Evidence from a Case Study in Arts and Culture (2002)
CCSS Working Paper #20 | Stephan Toepler.
Much of our current understanding of the nonprofit sector and the degree of voluntary action in the United States is based on statistics drawn from official data sources that do not include information on small-scale grassroots activities. Some observers have argued that a focus on larger, paid-staff nonprofits has led to an inaccurate depiction of U.S. voluntary action. This paper presents data from a community study of cultural organizations, comparing small-scale groups to larger organizations to shed more light on the question of how skewed statistical maps based on official data sources might be.
- Explaining Nonprofit Advocacy: An Exploratory Analysis (2002)
CCSS Working Paper #21 | Lester M. Salamon.
Discusses the results of a survey of 3,400 nonprofit public-benefit organizations across the United States in the early 1980s that asked questions about the type and extent of advocacy activity in which they engaged; examines a number of possible explanations of the patterns of nonprofit advocacy activity that are apparent; tests these theories against the survey data; and outlines some of the major implications that seem to flow from the results.
- Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, Volume 1 (1999)
ISBN 1-886333-42-4 | Lester M. Salamon, Helmut K. Anheier, Regina List, Stefan Toepler, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Associates.
Resulting from the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this volume presents a comprehensive country-by-country analysis of the scope, size, composition, and financing of the civil society sector in 22 countries around the world. The full text is available for download here; also available for purchase at Amazon.
- In Search of the Nonprofit Sector: Improving the state of the art (2001)
CCSS Working Paper #18 & Nonprofit Economic Data Bulletin #3 | Lester M. Salamon and Sarah Dewees. Identifies a set of criteria for evaluating the data sources currently available on the scale and structure of the U.S. nonprofit sector, applies these criteria to the existing sources of data to identify gaps that still exist, and describes how the work now underway through the Johns Hopkins Nonprofit Employment Project (NED) seeks to address these gaps and what the results have been to date. NED utilizes the ES-202 data source, a source of data on nonprofit employment and wages collected by State Employment Security Agencies as part of the federal government’s joint federal-state unemployment insurance program.
- New York Capital Region Nonprofits: A Major Economic Engine (2017)
Nonprofit Economic Data Bulletin #44 | Lester M. Salamon and Chelsea L. Newhouse.
This bulletin presents data on the scope and scale of the nonprofit sector in New York’s Capital Region—Albany, Columbia, Greene, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Warren, and Washington Counties— and how it changed between 2003 and 2013, revealing that not only is it the single largest "industry" in the region in terms of employment, but that it has shown remarkable resiliency through two recessionary periods, contributing 90% of all job growth during the study period. Produced in collaboration with New York Council of Nonprofits, Inc.
- New York: Westchester County Nonprofits: A Major Economic Engine (2014)
Nonprofit Economic Data Bulletin #42 | Lester M. Salamon and Stephanie Lessans Geller.
This bulletin presents data on the scope and scale of the nonprofit sector in New York's Westchester County, and how it changed between 2003 and 2013, revealing that not only is it the single largest industry in the county in terms of employment, but that it has shown remarkable resiliency through two recessionary periods. Produced in collaboration with Westchester County Nonprofits.
- Nonprofit Advocacy: What do we know? (2007)
CCSS Working Paper #22 | Stephanie L. Geller and Lester M. Salamon.
Explores what existing research tells us about the extent and prevailing trends in nonprofit involvement
in policy advocacy; examines what is known about the impact on nonprofit advocacy of some of the major factors that various theories have suggested affect the scale and character of nonprofit involvement in policy advocacy; and summarizes the gaps in our knowledge on this important topic and the implications these hold for further research on nonprofit advocacy.
- Nonprofit Works Flyer (2018)
This is the flyer for Nonprofit Works, the Center's interactive database of U.S. nonprofit employment, establishments, and wages.
- Pennsylvania Nonprofits: A Major State Industry (2017)
Nonprofit Economic Data Bulletin #45 | Lester M. Salamon and S. Wojciech Sokolowski.
This bulletin presents data on the scope and scale of the nonprofit sector in Pennsylvania and how it changed between 2007 and 2012, revealing that not only is it the single largest “industry” in the state in terms of employment, but that it showed remarkable resiliency during the most recent recessionary period.
- The 2020 Nonprofit Employment Report (6.2020)
Nonprofit Economic Data Bulletin #48 | Lester M. Salamon and Chelsea L. Newhouse.
The Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies’ 2020 Nonprofit Employment Report examines new data on employment and wages in private, nonprofit establishments in the United States. This report draws on the rich body of data generated by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages from 2007 through 2017 (the most recent year for which data are available), examines available data on COVID-19 job losses to estimate the impact on nonprofits through the first three months of the U.S. pandemic response, and highlights new BLS data on the number of employees in nonprofit firms to understand eligibility for COVID-related federal support funding.
- The Crises of the Nonprofit Sector (1995)
CCSS Working Paper #6 | Lester M. Salamon.
The challenge facing the American nonprofit sector is that private charity is not compensating for reductions in federal government support of the sector. This is compounded by the sector’s new credibility problem--nonprofits are increasingly viewed by the American public as part of the problem, and not solution, to social welfare problems. Thus time is ripe for the self-renewal of the nonprofit sector.
- The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 1992 (1991)
CCSS Working Paper #1 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson. This is one in a series of Occasional Papers produced by the Johns Hopkins Institute for policy Studies. This paper, published in December 1991, examines the implications for the nonprofit sector in the FY 1992 U.S. Federal budget.
- The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 1995 (1994)
CCSS Working Paper #5 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson.
In FY 1995 the Clinton administration proposed, and Congress passed, additional small federal budget increases supporting nonprofits, including social service agencies, hospitals, and universities. Continuing the work reported in Working Paper 3, this paper analyzes the effects of these changes
- The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 93 (1992)
CCSS Working Paper #2 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson.
This is one in a series of Occasional Papers produced by the Johns Hopkins Institute for policy Studies. This paper, published in 1992, examines the implications for the nonprofit sector in the FY 1993 U.S. Federal budget.
- The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: FY 94 (1993)
CCSS Working Paper #3 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson.
In FY 1993 and FY 1994 the Clinton administration proposed, and Congress passed, significant federal budget increases supporting certain types of nonprofit activities. Because government heavily relies on nonprofits to deliver services, changes in federal spending not only increase the scope of government action in these fields but also increase nonprofit revenues. This increase in funds reversed a ten-year trend in decreased federal support for the nonprofit sector, yet did not bring government funding back up to FY 1980 levels.
- The Federal Budget and the Nonprofit Sector: Implications of the Contract with America (1996)
CCSS Working Paper #8 | Lester M. Salamon and Alan J. Abramson.
The paper explores the potential impacts of budget and program changes first introduced in the 1994 Republican “Contract With America” on America’s private nonprofit organizations. These proposed changes threaten to plunge the nonprofit sector into a serious fiscal crisis. Proposed cuts reflect the public’s misunderstanding and devaluation of the character and scale of the nonprofit sector.
- The Nonprofit Sector and the Arts in the United States - Bridging the gap (1999)
CCSS Working Paper #15 | Stephan Toepler.
While most high cultural institutions as well as community arts groups in the U.S. are nonprofit in form, traditionally, there has been very little interaction between nonprofit research and research on arts policy and cultural economics. Based on a presentation given at the National Endowment for the Arts, this paper reviews the applicability and relevance of trends and policy issues in the nonprofit sector for the field of arts and culture.
- The State of Global Civil Society and Volunteering: Latest findings from the implementation of the UN Nonprofit Handbook (2013)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #49 | Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, Megan Haddock, and Helen S. Tice.
The latest findings resulting from the implementation of the UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts. This report includes data on nonprofit employment, volunteering, fields of activity, contribution to GDP, expenditures, and revenues in 16 countries around the world.
- The State of Nonprofit America, Second Edition (2012)
ISBN 978-0-8157-0330-3 | Lester M. Salamon, Ed.
This is the second edition of The State of Nonprofit America examines the forces at work on the U.S. nonprofit sector – voluntarism, professionalism, civic activism, and commercialism – and the tensions among these impulses. In the second edition of an immensely successful volume, Lester Salamon and his colleagues offer an overview of the current state of America’s nonprofit sector, examining the forces that are shaping its future and identifying the changes that might be needed. This edition has been completely revised and updated to reflect changing political realities and the punishing economic climate currently battering the nonprofit sector, which faces significant financial challenges during a time when its services are needed more than ever. This download contains the flyer for the book, and the table of contents. A sample chapter and ordering information are available at Brookings Press.
- The Third Route: Government-Nonprofit Collaboration in Germany and the United States (1996)
CCSS Working Paper #9 | Lester M. Salamon and Helmut K. Anheier. The third route, a partnership between the state and private sector for providing human services in a market system, offers certain advantages over the other two major routes: reliance on the state and reliance on the private sector. Both Germany and the United States have essentially collaborative social welfare systems; this paper describes both systems, and assesses the advantages and disadvantages of each.
- United States: Chapter 13 in Global Civil Society, Volume 1 (English, 1999)
Chapter 13 of Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, Volume 1. Resulting from the second stage of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this chapter analyses the scope, size, composition, and financing of the civil society sector in the United States. Data is circa 1995.
- United States: Chapter 13 in Global Civil Society, Volume 1 (Español, 1999)
Capítulo 13 de la La Sociedad Civil Global: Las dimensiones del sector no lucrativo, Volumen 1. Como resultado de la segunda etapa de la Johns Hopkins Proyecto Comparativo del Sector sin Fines de Lucro, en este capítulo se analiza el alcance, tamaño, composición, y la financiación del sector de la sociedad civil en los Estados Unidos. Los datos son alrededor de 1995.
- United States: Defining the Nonprofit Sector (1996)
Comparative Nonprofit Sector Working Paper #18 | Lester M. Salamon.
Describes the historical and social context in which nonprofit organizations have developed in the U.S., the legal framework that defines their basic structure, and the recent trends influencing their evolution. Discusses the American ideology of volunteerism, particularly as it relates to tension between an individualist ethos and the need for collective action. Ultimately, recommends a comparative analysis of the American nonprofit sector to assess the applicability of theoretical definitions and to move beyond a purely ideological perspective.